5 Things Every Dog and Cat Owner Should Know

No matter how careful we are as pet owners, dogs and cats sometimes still manage to cut themselves, get overheated and eat things they really shouldn’t. In honor of National Pet First Aid Awareness month, we at Paw Nation want to help you be prepared should trouble strike.We asked Dr. Elisa Mazzaferro, Director of Emergency Services at Wheat Ridge Animal Hospital in Colorado, and the official veterinarian of Animal Planet’s Puppy Bowl VI what she recommends you do in these five common situations:


1. Treating A Cut or Scratched Paw
“One of the most important things clients can do if injury is on the animal’s paw is to put pressure on it with a clean towel and bring the pet into the nearest veterinary hospital,” Dr. Mazzaferro tells Paw Nation. Don’t apply a tourniquet because it can decrease blood supply to the injured limb and be dangerous. And you should probably avoid rinsing a wounded paw in water. “Sometimes that will release a blood clot that’s formed.” says Dr. Mazzaferro.

2. Evaluating Vomiting and Diarrhea

“If your pet’s vomiting or diarrhea occurs more than just a couple of times, or if there is blood in it, or any suspicion of the dog or cat having gotten into a toxin, the pet needs to be seen by a veterinarian right away,” says Dr. Mazzaferro. Otherwise, if vomiting occurs just a couple of times, withhold food and water for at least six hours and see if the condition subsides. “If they continue to vomit or become lethargic, or if they’re a puppy or a very small, toy breed dog, I would bring them into a vet because they can dehydrate quickly,” says Dr. Mazzaferro



How The Butterflies Got Their Spots


How two butterfly species have evolved exactly the same striking wing colour and pattern has intrigued biologists since Darwin’s day. Now, scientists at Cambridge have found “hotspots” in the butterflies’ genes that they believe will explain one of the most extraordinary examples of mimicry in the natural world.Heliconius, or passion-vine butterflies, live in the Americas — from the southern United States to southern South America. Although they cannot interbreed, H. melpomene and H. erato have evolved to mimic one another perfectly.

These delicate butterflies have splashes of red and yellow on their black wings, signaling to birds that they contain toxins and are extremely unpalatable. They mimic one another’s colour and pattern to reinforce these warning signals.Scientists have studied these butterflies since the 1860s as a classic case of evolution in action, but only now is modern sequencing technology unlocking the underlying genetics.The Cambridge-led team of researchers from UK and US universities, which has been breeding the butterflies in Panama for the past decade, has been searching for the genes responsible for the butterflies’ wing patterns and the answer to the question of whether the same genes in two different species are responsible for the mimicry.